Although officially the EU has a single institutional framework, most foreign policy competences are governed by specific policy-making regimes with different roles of the various actors in the first and the second pillar. In EC areas, the Commission proposes, the Council, chaired by a six-monthly presidency, decides (in most cases in co-decision with the European Parliament), the Commission implements, controls and manages the budget and the Court of Justice provides judicial oversight. In CFSP/ESDP however, the Council dominates all stages of policy-making, assisted by the High Representative and his staff. The function of the latter becomes increasingly important after the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty (see also Treaty of Lisbon), when the High Representative, assisted by the European External Action Service, chairs the Foreign Affairs Council, conducts the CFSP/CSDP, and acts as vice-president of the Commission in charge of External Relations. This section provides further readings, basic documents and important links on the main actors and their role of EU foreign policy-making.
Hill, C. (Ed.). (1996) The Actors in Europe's Foreign Policy. London: Routledge.
Josselin, D., & Wallace, W. (2001) Non-state actors in world politics. New York: Palgrave.
Hill, C., & Smith, M. (Eds.) (2005) International Relations and the European Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press (see ‘Part II – Institutions and Processes’, pp. 65-175).
Nugent, N. (2006) The Government and Politics of the European Union. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (see ‘Part 3 – The Institutions and Political Actors of the European Union’, pp. 149-347).
Kurpas, S., et al. (2007) The Treaty of Lisbon: Implementing Institutional Innovations. Brussels: CEPS/EPC/Egmont.
Bengtsson, R. (2009) The EU and the European security order. Interfacing security actors. Oxon: Routledge.
Kurowska, X. & Pawlak, P. (Eds.) (2009) The Politics of European Security Policies: Actors, Dynamics and Contentious Outcomes. Perspectives on European Politics and Society. Special Issue 4. Vol. 10.
Lavenex, Sandra, and Frank Schimmelfennig (2009) Special issue: European Union external governance. Journal of European Public Policy 16 (6):791-949.
Galbreath, D. J. (2010) Contemporary European Security. Oxon: Routledge.
Vanhoonacker, Sophie, Hylke Dijkstra and Heidi Maurer (eds.). 2010. Understanding the Role of Bureaucracy in the European Security and Defence Policy, European Integration online Papers (EIoP), Special Issue 1, Vol. 14
Bond, Martyn. (2011) The Council of Europe. Structure, History and Issues in European Politics. Oxon: Routledge.
Eriksen, Erik Oddvar, and John Erik Fossum. (2011) Rethinking Democracy and the European Union. Oxon: Routledge.
Friedrich, Dawid, and Sandra Kröger. (2011) The Challenge of Democratic Representation in the European Union Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.